According to the Royal Household:

Over 1400 parading soldiers, 200 horses and 400 musicians come together each June in a great display of military precision, horsemanship and fanfare to mark The Queen’s official birthday.

The streets are lined with crowds waving flags as the parade moves from Buckingham Palace and down The Mall to Horse Guard’s Parade…

After the military bands have performed, the escorted Regimental Colour, or flag, is processed down the ranks of soldiers.

Her Majesty is then joined by other Members of the Royal Family on the balcony at Buckingham Palace to watch a fly-past by the Royal Air Force.

To read the entire post by the Royal Household, please click here.

Pictures may be found here.

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According to the Crown Chronicles:

Today’s State Opening of Parliament was a casual affair…

Her Majesty arrived at the Houses of Parliament in a Bentley…instead of the traditional horse-drawn carriages.

The Imperial State Crown arrived ahead of the Royals, also in a car. The crown only leaves the Tower of London for coronations and the opening.

The Queen read out a speech, which sets out the government’s plans for the next year; however, this Queen’s Speech is to last for two sessions. 2018’s State Opening of Parliament has been cancelled, in order to ‘provide stability’ whilst Brexit negotiations are ongoing.

To read the entire article on the Crown Chronicles, please click here.

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Following The Stars To Santiago – Part II

By now, I am well along the way and have come to one of the most meaningful monuments of the walk, “the Iron Cross” in the province of Leon. Each pilgrim continues a thousand-year-old tradition of placing a stone at the foot of this cross. Over the centuries the small mound of stones has become a real mountain that serves as a pedestal for the small iron cross. Each stone is a tribute to a history full of hope and desire. In Roman times, similar mounds where called “hills of Mercury,” the god of pilgrims, and served for territorial demarcation. Centuries afterward, the hermit Glaucoma, protector of the pilgrims in these parts, placed a cross upon these mounds, Christianizing these ancient monuments. The Iron Cross is also a place where pilgrims leave messages for others following along the way.

After traveling more than 400 miles, one begins to think he has seen everything, but this age-old journey does not cease to surprise, even in its most minute details.  I would never have imagined what I came across in a church in the city of Cacabelos: an old and pious image of the Child Jesus playing cards with Saint Anthony of Padua. It was even more surprising to discover that the locals have a very tender devotion to these two illustrious card players. In this same city there is a hospital for pilgrims built in the twelfth century. It presently serves as a restaurant where pilgrims can regain their strength with a delightful meat pie and good wine, completely free of charge. One need only prove that he is truly a pilgrim.

The land becomes noticeably greener as one approaches Galicia. The seemingly unending plains are left behind, and nature begins to reward the pilgrim with verdant panoramas. Cebreiro is the first village encountered. The place lies on a plateau almost 4,000 feet above sea level, requiring a long, steep climb to reach it. Frequent rains make the path muddy and the climb all the more difficult. In this small village, where homes are still built in an ancient style using only stone and straw without any sort of mortar, Providence deigned to work an impressive Eucharistic miracle. According to tradition, in the fourteenth century, a tired peasant arrived at the church of Cebreiro to hear Mass. He had come from a little village at the foot of the mountain and had trudged through a strong snowstorm to reach his destination. The monk celebrating the Mass had much less faith than the peasant; scorning the peasant in his heart, he thought him foolish to undergo such hardship to come to Mass. Immediately, the Sacred Species was visibly converted into the Body and Blood of Christ.  This Eucharistic miracle is preserved until today in this same church over the tombs of the two anonymous protagonists.

Santiago de Compostela

The Galician landscape is dotted with small villages where life has not changed in many centuries. The fresh aromatic scent of the vast eucalyptus forest reminded me of the Australian bush. The gum trees first came to Galicia last century with the famous Spanish Benedictine missionary Bishop Rosendo Salvado, who had been a zealous apostle among the Aborigine people in Western Australia. One of the few physical consolations of the walk is in the area of gastronomy. A good lunch in one of the typical old inns is just what the body needs to continue. Each region offers its own diversity of impressive products, and it is traditional to stop for the local specialties. The Galician village of Melide, for example, prepares the region’s best octopus. It is hard to fathom how such a delicious dish can be made with an animal that seems so unpleasant.

Santiago de Compostela

While one is on the long road of solitude, God whispers special graces into the soul, inspiring good thoughts and new resolutions. Walking all day every day has already become second nature, and one wonders what will happen when, finishing the pilgrimage, he returns to daily life. After following the same path that saints, kings, and souls of Faith have walked for centuries, everything else seems a bit insipid. Then a special emotion sets in as one realizes he will reach Santiago in a matter of days, and Our Lady begins to prepare him spiritually for that moment.

At last, Santiago lay before me. The first view of the towers of the cathedral is from the Mount of Joy, well named for the joy pilgrims experience with their first glimpse of the Shrine. Profoundly moved, I came gradually closer to the city gate. Trying to take advantage of the last remnants of interior solitude, I was unable to speak with the other pilgrims. Tradition dictates that a Holy Year pilgrim to Compostela enter through the Holy Door of the cathedral in order to receive the indulgences granted by the Church. That door, generally closed and barred, is opened only when Saint James’ feast day falls on a Sunday, a tradition dating back many centuries. On the last day of the year preceding a Holy Year, the bishop breaks the seal on the Holy Door with a silver hammer in a ceremony watched with great interest by all Spain. The door then remains open the entire year.

After entering through the Holy Door, one first “hugs” the Saint, represented by a beautiful stone bust over the main altar. Beneath the altar lie the remains of the Apostle, which were rediscovered in 1879 after being hidden from raiding English pirates under Sir Francis Drake 300 years earlier. Mass was being celebrated as I entered the cathedral,   and   the   famous “botafumeiro”— a huge thurible handled by eight men — was swinging from one side of the church to the other, releasing an enormous cloud of incense.

Julian Martin – our pilgrim- “I had finally arrived!”

I had finally arrived! The relics of the great Apostle were but a few feet away! Tears flowed down my sunburned face, just like the other pilgrims. The feeling in one’s soul at this moment is very difficult to describe. It can be understood only by one who has carried a pouch on his shoulders along that 550 miles of history toward the field of the star.

Short Stories on Honor, Chivalry, and the World of Nobility—no. 582

 

 

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By Plinio Corrêa de Oliveira

The problem is, for you to have the spirit of chivalry you need to be fully imbued with the sublimity of what you do, and to love this sublimity. If you do not do that, you will not have the true spirit of the knight.

You may say: “If we see ourselves in this light, we will become proud.”

No you won’t. You won’t because he who loves true sublimity, not the sublimity of his person, but the sublimity of his [fighting] vocation – and here is the question – the sublimity of that for which he was made, for which he was called, of what he has to do; he who was invited to this by grace and says yes, elevates himself instead of falling into pride.

It would be pride for him to imagine, “Look how formidable I have become! I am now a boss in this or that!” Then he falls into pride. But this is not chivalry.

St. Alphonsus leaving his sword at the feet of Our Lady.

Chivalry is for man to think, “I am a knight of God and of the Virgin and am here facing the adversaries, I’m in the battle.” This is chivalry.

It was much easier for a knight of the Middle Ages to become proud than for you. Because a man all decked up in armor, riding a horse in the street with everyone looking and finding it beautiful, would be like a man today riding around in a Rolls Royce or something of the sort. A great horse with a beautiful armor was the equivalent to a Rolls Royce today, but with much more elevation than even a Rolls Royce today. Well, while that man was still moving about in Christian lands, he would feel the object of general admiration, and so it was very easy for him to become proud.

Today you almost run the opposite risk: that of losing your combativeness for not having the courage to look at the sublimity of your [fighting] vocation and be conscious of your dignity, walking with your heads high knowing that others will mock and despise you, etc. This is what we must do.

Well, so in order for you to acquire the spirit of chivalry you need to acquire more and more the notion of the marvel that you are carrying out.

(Excerpt from a Tea, Tuesday, Sept. 12, 1989 – Nobility.org translation)

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St. Etheldreda

Statue of St Etheldreda on the West Front of Salisbury Cathedral, UK.

Statue of St Etheldreda on the West Front of Salisbury Cathedral, UK.

Queen of Northumbria; born (probably) about 630; died at Ely, 23 June, 679.

While still very young she was given in marriage by her father, Anna, King of East Anglia, to a certain Tonbert, a subordinate prince, from whom she received as morning gift a tract of land locally known as the Isle of Ely. She never lived in wedlock with Tonbert, however, and for five years after his early death was left to foster her vocation to religion.

Her father then arranged for her a marriage of political convenience with Egfrid, son and heir to Oswy, King of Northumbria. From this second…

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St. John the Baptist

The principal sources of information concerning the life and ministry of St. John the Baptist are the canonical Gospels. Of these St. Luke is the most complete, giving as he does the wonderful circumstances accompanying the birth of the Precursor and items on his ministry and death. St. Matthew’s Gospel stands in close relation with that of St. Luke, as far as John’s public ministry is concerned, but contains nothing in reference to his early life. From St. Mark, whose account of the Precursor’s life is very meagre, no new detail can be gathered. Finally, the fourth Gospel has this special feature, that it gives the testimony of St. John after the Saviour’s baptism. Besides the indications supplied by these writings, passing allusions occur in such passages as Acts, xiii, 24; xix, 1-6; but these are few and bear on the subject only indirectly. To the above should be added that Josephus relates in his Jewish Antiquities (XVIII, v, 2), but…

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by Antonio Borrelli

A young Maria Clotilde of Savoy.

Maria Clotilde of Savoy is one of the most striking examples of how to achieve union with Christ while remaining in the world in environments which by their nature lead instead to distraction, pride of power, luxury and a worldly lifestyle, things once usually abundant in the royal and imperial courts of Europe.

She was born in Turin on 2 March 1843, the eldest of eight children of King Vittorio Emanuele II and Queen Maria Adelaide of Austria. From her parents and grandparents, Carlo Alberto and Maria Teresa, rulers of Piedmont and Sardinia, she received an excellent religious education and was attracted to Jesus from an early age. In order to increase her love of Christ, she read and assimilated the writings of Bourdalone, Father Croiset, and Massillon.

As her mother died prematurely, she took an interest in helping her orphaned siblings. On 11 June 1853, in the castle of Stupinigi she received her first Holy Communion; and on that day, memorable for all children, Maria Clotilde wrote her plans for the future, including one of absolute simplicity: “Jesus, from now on I want to act only to please Thee.”

Princess Ludovica Teresa Maria Clotilde of Savoy (March 2, 1843 – June 25, 1911)

Since that day the Eucharist became the great love of her life; she will never do without it, just as from an early she learned to venerate the Blessed Mother and to pray the Rosary every day.

She acquired a good religious and literary culture, learned the most important European languages, was a discreet painter, and loved music and equestrian sports. Despite family bereavements, her life passed quietly until 1857, when Maria Clotilde was 15. Her father, King Vittorio Emanuele II, received from Prince Jerome Bonaparte, cousin of Emperor Napoleon III of France, a request to marry her.

At that point, the request turned into political imposition by the Italian Prime Minister, Camillo Benso di Cavour, who was negotiating in Plombières in 1858 an intervention by the French on the side of Piedmont against Austria.

Photograph of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy.

Her father, Vittorio Emanuele, opposed his 15-year old daughter’s marriage to a prince in his forties and a famous libertine, but was soon forced to yield for “reasons of state”. Clotilde accepted to wed as a sacrificial victim, and on 30 January 1859, she married Jerome Bonaparte in the cathedral of Turin.

On 3 February, the couple made a solemn entrance to Paris, welcomed by the entire court and by Emperor Napoleon III and Empress Eugenie.

However, her difficulties began quite soon, as her Christian principles clashed with those of her husband, profoundly influenced by the writings of Voltaire. He would spend whole days without seeing her, and Maria Clotilde was forced to write in order to communicate with him.

Photograph of Princess Ludovica Teresa Maria Clotilde and her husband Prince Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte.

In 1861, in order to please him, she accompanied him to the U.S. and in 1863 to Egypt and the Holy Land, where she was able to pray at length and with great emotion on the holy sites of Jesus, especially on Calvary, as she was a great devotee of the Crucifix.

While avoiding hurting the feelings of her husband Jerome, a rationalist and an enemy of religion, she managed to have a chapel in the palace with the celebration of daily Mass.

The marriage produced three children, Vittorio Napoleon (1862), Louis Napoleon (1864) and Maria Letizia (1866); they became her greatest joy and she raised them in the light of Christ.

PrinceNapoléon Bonaparte with his two sons.

While in the pomp of the imperial court in Paris, Maria Clotilde kept a spirit of compassion and detachment, dedicating herself to the poor and the sick in hospitals, whom she visited every day.

Even in parties in which she was forced to participate she dressed with simplicity and was very reserved; her style, gentleness and religiosity imposed themselves at court to the point that Ernest Renan, an infidel and enemy of Christ, said: “Clotilde is a saint of the race of St. Louis of France.” Emperor Napoleon III, whom she affectionately called ‘Dad’, esteemed her deeply and deemed her “a most affectionate daughter.”

On 2 September 1870, as the Prussians defeated the French army at Sedan, the Napoleonic dynasty was dethroned and misadventures began also for Clotilde’s family; but she faced them with a strong and courageous heart.

And their daughter, Maria Letizia Bonaparte, Duchess of Aosta.

In August 1870, even her father, Vittorio Emanuele II advised her to return to Turin, but she declined responding that the good of her husband, children, and France, would not allow it.

However, as the Prussians invaded Paris, on 5 September she had to depart and became the last person to leave the city. She did so with the dignity of a queen and not as a fugitive, and sought refuge in the castle of Prangins on Lake Geneva, Switzerland.

There her inner spirituality manifested itself even more and, still in her thirties, she offered herself to God as a victim: “From now on, my life will be a complete immolation of body, heart, feelings and everything for Thy love, o Jesus … I will be happy to be Thy victim, o my Jesus, if Thou be so pleased.”

Her husband, Jerome Bonaparte, left her alone in Prangins and returned to Paris, with an eye to recover his throne and have fun; he ignored his family.

Maria Clotilde suffered greatly because of that, a situation exacerbated by the lack of attending Mass and receiving Communion. Only on Sundays could she travel to Nyon, a neighboring city, to attend Mass. There she met Dominican Father Hyacinth Cormier (1832-1916), today a Blessed, who became her new spiritual director. That meeting gave rise to her joining the Dominican Third Order under the name ‘Sister Catherine of the Sacred Heart’, while remaining in the world and devoted to her family.

After much prayer and taking counsel with Father Cormier, she finally decided to separate amicably from her husband, with whom she remained on good terms, so much so that in 1891 she went to Rome, where he was dying, to comfort him and have the consolation of seeing him die as a Christian.
In 1878, she left Switzerland and returned to the castle of her ancestors in Moncalieri, Italy, where she spent the rest of her life.

She lived as a nun in the world, with daily Mass and Communion, saying the whole Rosary to Our Lady, and showing extreme love and charity for children, the poor, the sick, mothers of families, and helping priests, always present at every charitable initiative.
While still living, she was already called “the saint of Moncalieri.” She backed and supported nascent works of many great saints from Turin at the time such as Don Bosco, Don Murialdo, Don Cottolengo, canons Luigi and Giovanni Boccardo, etc. She personally gave catechism classes at her home in Moncalieri, preparing children for the First Communion.

A faithful daughter of the Church, she wrote the King her father a strong note of protest when she learned that laws suppressing religious orders, approved in Piedmont in 1854, would be applied to the whole new Kingdom of Italy. Without fearing the widespread Freemasonry, she wrote, “The last day will come for all, and then things will be seen clearly. Dad, do not prepare painful and terrible remorse for yourself.”

She became a true mystic who lived off Jesus in silence and recollection while making Him known to all. When her brother, King Umberto I, was assassinated in Monza on 29 July 1900, the Crown Prince, Vittorio Emanuele III asked Aunt Clotilde for prayers and help.

She died in Moncalieri, aged 68, on 25 June 1911, and after a solemn funeral at Turin’s “Great Mother of God” Church she was buried in the Basilica of Superga.

A model for both the powerful and humble, the cause for her beatification was introduced on 10 July 1942.

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St. Maximus of Turin

St. Maximus of Turin preaching to the people.

Bishop and theological writer, b. probably in Rhaetia, about 380; d. shortly after 465. Only two dates are historically established in his life. In 451 he was at the synod of Milan where the bishops of Northern Italy accepted the celebrated letter (epistola dogmatica) of Leo I, setting forth the orthodox doctrine of the Incarnation against the Nestorians and Eutychians (Mansi, “SS. Conc. Coll. Ampl.”, VI, 143). Among nineteen subscribers Maximus is the eighth, and since the order was determined by age, Maximus must then have been about seventy years old. The second established date is 465, when he was at the Synod of Rome. (Mansi, VII, 959, 965 sq.) Here the subscription of Maximus follows immediately after the pope’s, showing he was the oldest of the forty-eight bishops present. The approximate time and place of his birth may be surmised from a passage in Sermo 81 (P.L., LVII, 695), where he designates himself as a witness of the martyrdom of three missionary priests in 397 at Anaunia in the Rhaetian Alps. History does not mention him after 465. He is the first known bishop of Turin, then a suffragan see of Milan. His successor was St. Victor. His name is in the Roman martyrology on 25 June, and the city of Turin honours him as its patron. A life which, however, is entirely unreliable, was written after the eleventh century, and is printed in “Acta SS.”, June, VII, 3rd ed., 44-46. It states that a cleric one day followed him with an evil intention to a retired chapel, where the saint was wont to pray. The cleric suddenly became so thirsty that he implored Maximus for help. A roe happened to pass which the saint caused to stop, so that the cleric could partake of its milk. This legend accounts for the fact that St. Maximus is represented in art as pointing at a roe.

St. Maximus presents to the people of Turin the Icon of the Madonna Consolata.

He is the author of numerous discourses, first edited by Bruni, and published by order of Pius VI at the Propaganda in 1784 (reprinted in P.L., LVII). These discourses, delivered to the people by the saint, consist of one hundred and eighteen homilies, one hundred and sixteen sermons, and six treatises (tractatus). Homilies 1-63 are de tempore, i.e. on the seasons of the ecclesiastical year and on the feasts of Our Lord; 64-82, de sanctis, i.e. on the saints whose feast was commemorated on the day on which they were delivered; 83-118, de diversis, i.e. exegetical, dogmatical or moral. Sermons 1-55 are de tempore; 56-93, de sanctis; 93-116, de diversis. Three of the treatises are on baptism, one against the Pagans, and one against the Jews. The last two are extant only in fragments, and their genuineness is doubtful. The sixth treatise, whose genuineness is also doubtful, contains short discourses on twenty-three topics taken from the Four Gospels. An appendix contains writings of uncertain authorship; thirty-one sermons, three homilies, and two long epistles addressed to a sick friend. Many writings, however, which Bruni ascribes to Maximus are of doubtful origin. The discourses are usually very brief, and couched in forcible, though at times over flowery language. Among the many facts of liturgy and history touched on in the discourses are: abstinence during Lent (hom. 44), no fasting or kneeling at prayers during paschal time (hom. 61), fasting on the Vigil of Pentecost (hom. 62), the synod of Milan in 389 at which Jovinianus was condemned (hom. 9), the impending barbarian invasion (hom. 86-92), the destruction of the Church of Milan by the barbarians (hom. 94), various pagan superstitions still prevalent at his time (hom. 16, 100-02), the supremacy of St. Peter (hom. 54, 70, 72, serm. 114). All his discourses manifest his solicitude for the eternal welfare of his flock, and in many he fearlessly rebukes the survivals of paganism and defends the orthodox faith against the inroads of heresy.

Ferreri, S. Massimo, vescovo di Torino e i suoi tempi (3rd ed., Turin, 1868); Savio, Gli antichi vescovi d’Italia (Turin, 1899), 283-294; Fessler-Jungmann, Institutiones Patrologiae, II (Innsbruck, 1892), ii, 256-76; Argles in Dict. Christ. Biog., s. v. Maximus (I6); Bardenhewer, Patrology, tr. Shahan (St. Louis, 1908), 527-8.

MICHAEL OTT (Catholic Encyclopedia)

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(Or WILLIAM OF MONTE VERGINE.)

Saint William of Vercelli's statue at St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican. 1878

Statue of Saint William of Vercelli at St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican.

The founder of the Hermits of Monte Vergine, or Williamites, born 1085; died 25 June, 1142. He was the son of noble parents, both of whom died when he was still a child, and his education was entrusted to one of his kinsmen. At the age of fifteen he made up his mind to renounce the world and lead a life of penance. With this end in view, he went on a pilgrimage to St. James of Compostella, and, not content with the ordinary hardships of such a pilgrimage, he encircled his body with iron bands to increase his suffering. After this journey he started on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, but it was revealed to him that he would be of greater service to God if he remained in Italy. He built himself a hut on Monte Vergine, wishing to become a hermit and live in solitude, but it was not long before many people flocked to him to put themselves under his guidance, being attracted by the sanctity of his life and the many miracles which he performed. Soon a monastery was built, and by 1119 the Congregation of Monte Vergine (q.v.) was founded. St. William lived at Monte Vergine until the brethren began to murmur against him, saying that the life was too austere, that he gave too much in alms, and so on. He therefore decided to leave Monte Vergine and thus take away from the monks the cause of their grievances. Roger I of Naples took him under his patronage, and the saint founded many monasteries, both of men and of women, in that kingdom. So edified was the king with the saint’s sanctity of life and the wisdom of his counsels that, in order to have him always near him, he built a monastery opposite his palace at Salerno. Knowing by special revelation that his end was at hand, William retired to his monastery of Gugieto, where he died, and was buried in the church.

Acta SS., V June, 112; VI June, 259; RENDA, Vita. . .S. Gulielmi (Naples, 1591).

Paul Brookfield (Catholic Encyclopedia)

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Simon de Montfort

An Earl of Leicester, date of birth unknown, died at Toulouse, 25 June, 1218. Simon (IV) de Montfort was descended from the lords of Montfort l’Amaury in Normandy, being the second son of Simon (III), and Amicia, daughter of Robert de Beaumont, third Earl of Leicester. Having succeeded his father as Baron de Montfort in 1181, in 1190 he married Alice de Montmorency, the daughter of Bouchard (III) de Montmorency. In 1199 while taking part in a tournament at Ecry-sur-Aisne in the province of Champagne he heard Fulk de Neuilly preaching the crusade, and in company with Count Thibaud de Champagne and many other nobles and knights he took the cross. Unfortunately, the crusade got out of control, and the French knights, instead of co-operating with the pope, decided on a campaign in Egypt, and on their arrival at Venice entered on…

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St. Anthelm of Belley

(1107 – 1178) Prior of the Carthusian Grand Chartreuse and bishop of Belley.

He was born near Chambéry in 1107. He would later receive an ecclesiastical benefice in the area of Belley. When he was thirty years old, he resigned from this position to become a Carthusian monk at Portes. Only two years after joining the order, he was made the prior of the Grande Chartreuse, the motherhouse of his order, which had recently incurred substantial damage.

He was an effective administrator there. While under his…

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Pope St. Silverius

(Reigned 536-37).

Dates of birth and death unknown. He was the son of Pope [St.] Hormisdas who had been married before becoming one of the higher clergy. Silverius entered the service of the Church and was subdeacon at Rome when Pope Agapetus died at Constantinople, 22 April, 536. The Empress Theodora, who favoured the Monophysites sought to bring about the election as pope of the Roman deacon Vigilius who was then at Constantinople and had given her the desired guarantees as to the Monophysites. However, Theodatus, King of the Ostrogoths, who wished to prevent the election of a pope connected with Constantinople, forestalled her, and by his influence the subdeacon Silverius was chosen. The election of a subdeacon as Bishop of Rome was unusual. Consequently, it is easy to understand that, as the author of the first part of the life of Silverius in…

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St. Aloysius Gonzaga

When we see a young prince, the darling of his family and country, sacrifice nobility, sovereignty, riches, and pleasures, the more easily to secure the treasure of divine love, and of eternal happiness, how ought we to condemn our own sloth, who live as if heaven were to cost us nothing!

When we see a young prince, the darling of his family and country, sacrifice nobility, sovereignty, riches, and pleasures, the more easily to secure the treasure of divine love, and of eternal happiness, how ought we to condemn our own sloth, who live as if heaven were to cost us nothing!

Aloysius Gonzaga was son of Ferdinand Gonzaga, prince of the holy empire, and marquis of Castiglione, removed in the third degree of kindred from the duke of Mantua. His mother was Martha Tana Santena, daughter of Tanus Santena, lord of Cherry, in Piedmont. She was lady of honor to Isabel, the wife of Philip II of Spain, in whose court the marquis Gonzaga also lived in great favor. When she understood this nobleman had asked her in marriage both of the king and queen, and of her friends in Italy, being a lady of remarkable piety, she spent her time in fasting and prayer in order to learn the will of heaven, and to draw down upon herself the divine blessing. The marriage was solemnized in the most…

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St. Thomas More

Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, 1477-78; executed at Tower Hill, 6 July, 1535.

He was the sole surviving son of Sir John More, barrister and later judge, by his first wife Agnes, daughter of Thomas Graunger. While still a child Thomas was sent to St. Anthony’s School in Threadneedle Street, kept by Nicholas Holt, and when thirteen years old was placed in the household of Cardinal Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Lord Chancellor. Here his merry character and brilliant intellect attracted the notice of the archbishop, who sent him to Oxford, where he entered at Canterbury Hall (subsequently absorbed by Christ Church) about 1492. His father made him an allowance barely sufficient to supply the necessaries of life and, in consequence, he…

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St. Paulinus, Bishop of Nola

(Pontius Meropius Anicius Paulinus.)

Born at Bordeaux about 354; died 22 June, 431. He sprang from a distinguished family of Aquitania and his education was entrusted to the poet Ausonius. He became governor of the Province of Campania, but he soon realized that he could not find in public life the happiness he sought. From 380 to 390 he lived almost entirely in his native land. He married a Spanish lady, a Christian named Therasia. To her, to Bishop Delphinus of Bordeaux and his successor the Presbyter Amandus, and to St. Martin of Tours, who had cured him of some disease of the eye, he owed his conversion. He and his brother were baptized at the same time by Delphinus. When Paulinus lost his only child eight days a…

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St. John Fisher

Cardinal, Bishop of Rochester, and martyr; born at Beverley, Yorkshire, England, 1459 (?1469); died 22 June, 1535. John was the eldest son of Robert Fisher, merchant of Beverley, and Agnes his wife. His early education was probably received in the school attached to the collegiate church in his native town, whence in 1484 he removed to Michaelhouse, Cambridge. He took the degree of B.A. in 1487, proceeded M.A. in 1491, in which year he was elected a fellow of his college, and was made Vicar of Northallerton, Yorkshire. In 1494 he resigned his benefice to become proctor of his university, and three years later was appointed Master of Michaelhouse, about which date he became chaplain and confessor to Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of King Henry VII. In 1501 he received the degree of D.D., and was elected Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University. Under Fisher’s guidance, the Lady Margaret founded St. John’s and Christ’s Colleges at Cambridge, and also the two “Lady Margaret” professorships of divinity at Oxford and Cambridge respectively…

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Following The Stars To Santiago – Part I

The Way of Saint James pilgrim’s shell signs.

There were times when a pilgrimage to Santiago was a dangerous undertaking. Thieves, murderers, and highwaymen assaulted defenseless pilgrims. To ensure the pilgrims’ safety, the Church fostered several groups, including many orders of chivalry.  The Knights of Santiago, the Knights Templars, the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem, and the Knights of the Holy Sepulcher all took part in this charitable task and dotted the pilgrimage route with their beautiful churches. In the daily routine of the walk, one feels like part of a large family. Inspired by authentic Christian charity, the pilgrims help one another and share interesting experiences. One of the most picturesque occurred while I was crossing the dry and dusty plains of Palencia. I met a young couple who could barely walk after many hours in the sun. Though they had suffered much, they exuded a special joy that is born of sacrifice endured for the love of God. They said they had been married a week before and to obtain special graces of God for their life together they had decided to spend their honeymoon walking to Santiago de Compostela, certainly, an unforgettable and inspiring beginning for a marriage.

When Al-Mamsur conquered Santiago de Compostela and razed its church, he forced the Catholics to carry the large church bells to Cordoba, his capital. Years later, St. Ferdinand re-conquered Cordoba and obliged the Moslems to return the same bells to Compostella.

Another family, from Andalusia, had begun their walk in Seville to fulfill a promise. That very traditional route, crossing Spain from south to north, was established by Saint Ferdinand of Castile himself. The story goes back to the tenth century, when the Moslem troops of Almanzor destroyed the church that housed the body of Saint James without actually damaging the relics. The Moslems’ fury was not satisfied with just the destruction of the church. History recounts that Almanzor had his horse drink from the Baptismal font and afterwards ordered the Christian prisoners to carry the bells of the church to Cordoba to be used as lamps in his mosque. When Saint Ferdinand conquered Cordoba 250 years later, he recovered the bells and had them returned to Santiago in the manner in which they had came to Cordoba, this time on the backs of Moslem prisoners.

The pilgrimage provides ample opportunities to stop and talk a bit, often with the accompaniment of a good wine. Close to the Benedictine monastery of Irache, which dates from the tenth century, there is a welcome fountain that serves to quench the thirst of tired pilgrims, not with an excellent water, but with a superb wine! It is the only such fountain in the world, ideally suited “to gladden the heart of the pilgrim.” One often encounters such curiosities during the walk. One also hears fascinating stories of saints and miracles. Upon reaching the beautiful city of Santo Domingo de la Calzada, named in honor of an enthusiastic and saintly helper of pilgrims, I was amazed to see and hear a caged rooster and hen in a prominent place in the cathedral. That definitely not being something I am accustomed to, I quickly inquired about it and learned that it was a reminder of a magnificent occurrence in this town during the Middle Ages.

Along the way one finds many a fountain provided for the pilgrims. This particular fountain however is very special, offering wine rather than water. The sign on the stone wall says, “Pilgrim, if you wish to reach Santiago with strength and vitality, drink of this wine and make a toast to happiness. Fountain of Irache.”

A family of German pilgrims, father, mother, and son, had stopped for lodging in this city after a long, hard day of walking. The hostel owner’s daughter became captivated with the young German and tried to seduce him. The young man resisted her with heroic intransigence. Furious at being rejected, the young woman hid a silver cup among the boy’s belongings in the hope that it would be discovered and the boy accused of theft. At that time, such a crime was punished by hanging, and that is exactly what happened.  As the grief-stricken father and mother prepared to continue   on their way, they were absolutely astounded to find that their son was still alive. The boy told them that Saint Dominic had supported his feet. The parents hastened to report the miracle to the judge, who was having his dinner at the time. “Your son is as alive as this chicken I am having for dinner,” the judge scoffed. As he said that, the chicken came alive and started to crow, to the astonishment of all. From then on, a caged rooster and hen have been kept in the cathedral to remind the pilgrims of this marvel. A piece of wood from the gallows where the young man was hanged is also kept there. Popular tradition refers to the city with the picturesque adage:

“Santo Domingo de la Calzada, donde cantó la gallina después de asada”— “Saint Dominic of the highway, where the rooster crowed after being roasted.”

I was pleased to learn another day that the convent of Claretian nuns I was visiting in Carrion de los Condes had lodged Saint Francis of Assisi on his way to Santiago and that the road I was on had been built by Saint John of Ortega in the eleventh century. That saint had accompanied Saint Dominic during his apostolate with the pilgrims and had helped build bridges, hospitals, and churches. His body lies in a sanctuary dedicated to him in the province of Burgos. It was there that I received one of the greatest graces of my entire pilgrimage. On arriving, I was surprised to see so many buses, cars, and people. I knew the shrine was famous as a place of pilgrimage for women with fertility problems — Queen Isabella the Catholic herself made a pilgrimage there after seven years of fruitless marriage. I also knew that the parish church was well known for the excellent soup it provided free of charge to all pilgrims. But that was not the reason for such a gathering. It was March 21, the first day of spring.

Inside the Cathedral of Santo Domingo de la Calzada, where the rooster crowed after being roasted. At the top, middle section lives the rooster and hen.

The multitude filled the inside of the Romanesque church to witness a spectacle that occurs just twice   a year, “the miracle of light.” Next to the main altar stands a column crowned with a twelfth-century roman capital that experts consider one of the most splendid in the world. This capital depicts in beautiful relief Saint Gabriel’s annunciation to Our Lady, Saint Joseph’s dream, and Our Lord’s nativity. Around six in the afternoon, as the light of the setting sun enters the church, one ray of sunlight streams through a small spot in the window illuminating the nave. This small stream of light slowly grows in size and intensity until it reaches the figure of Saint Gabriel. It then begins to shine on Our Lady, illuminating Her entirely. The analogy with the Incarnation is striking. Gradually the entire capitol, with its figures of Saint Elizabeth, Saint Joseph, and the Nativity, is bathed in light. A special grace suffuses the ambience, and no one dares utter a word. The priest told us that even if spring begins with stormy weather, March 21 is always sunny with a clear blue sky. The same occurs every September 21, the autumnal equinox. Medieval ingenuity shines brightly in this, clearly refuting those who denigrate the Middle Ages.

One of the virtues that God really puts to the test during the walk is the virtue of patience. The pain comes and goes, but the trying aspect of the pilgrimage does not. One walks for many hours each day, yet the goal often seems ever further away, so one can well imagine my feeling when, having logged more than 240 miles, I encountered a sign saying that Santiago was still 300 miles away! The hardest part of the walk came on the ancient Roman road still used today between the cities of Carrion de los Condes and Calzadilla de la Cueza in the province of Palencia. It is a ten mile stretch of true monotony and barrenness. Not a single house, not a single person, not a single tree, serves as a reference during hours and hours aggravated by unexpected rain and wind that comes from nowhere and throws the dust and dirt into one’s face. I almost had to crawl on all fours to get through it.

Picture of St. James stamps in France, stamped in “Way of St. James” pilgrim passport.

“I don’t understand why you would be out here walking in such conditions. You must be half crazy,” said a less than charitable woman. Her remark was in marked contrast to the usually very warm hospitality one frequently encounters. Families run hostels for pilgrims all along the walk, and each family member has a duty. The lady of the house cooks, the husband manages the place, and their daughters treat the pilgrim’s wounds without asking for any return. One very picturesque elderly lady has been offering a handful of figs, cold water, and old stories to the pilgrims for more than 50 years. For each pilgrim passing by her home in Lorgnon, she drops a pebble in a bucket.

[to be continued]

Short Stories on Honor, Chivalry, and the World of Nobility—no. 581

 

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By Plinio Corrêa de Oliveira

Protestors against the National Organization for Marriage’s March for Marriage on June 25, 2016 in Washington, D.C.

There is more heroism in maintaining the elevation of soul in this pigsty that is the contemporary world, and to face the temptations, manifestations of annoyance, and perhaps laughter or mockery that you all face, than in riding a horse in shining armor, resplendent with glory.

 

(Excerpt from a Tea, Tuesday, Sept. 12, 1989 – Nobility.org translation)

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(Lotario de’ Conti)

One of the greatest popes of the Middle Ages, son of Count Trasimund of Segni and nephew of Clement III, born 1160 or 1161 at Anagni, and died 16 June, 1216, at Perugia.

Pope Innocent III

He received his early education at Rome, studied theology at Paris, jurisprudence at Bologna, and became a learned theologian and one of the greatest jurists of his time. Shortly after the death of Alexander III (30 Aug., 1181) Lotario returned to Rome and held various ecclesiastical offices during the short reigns of Lucius III, Urban III, Gregory VIII, and Clement III. Pope Gregory VIII ordained him subdeacon, and Clement III created him Cardinal-Deacon of St. George in Velabro and Sts. Sergius and Bacchus, in 1190. Later he became Cardinal-Priest of St. Pudentiana. During the pontificate of Celestine III (1191-1198), a member of the House of the Orsini, enemies of the counts of Segni, he lived in retirement, probably at Anagni, devoting himself chiefly to meditation and literary pursuits. Celestine III died 8 January, 1198. Previous to his death he had urged the College of Cardinals to elect Giovanni di Colonna as his successor; but Lotario de’ Conti was elected pope, at Rome, on the very day on which Celestine III died. He accepted the tiara with reluctance and took the name of Innocent III. At the time of his accession to the papacy he was only thirty-seven years of age. The imperial throne had become vacant by the death of Henry VI in 1197, and no successor had as yet been elected. The tactful and energetic pope made good use of the opportunity offered him by this vacancy for the restoration of the papal power in Rome and in the States of the Church. The Prefect of Rome, who reigned over the city as the emperor’s representative, and the senator who stood for the communal rights and privileges of Rome, swore allegiance to Innocent. When he had thus re-established the papal authority in Rome, he availed himself of every opportunity to put in practice his grand concept of the papacy. Italy was tired of being ruled by a host of German adventurers, and the pope experienced little difficulty in extending his political power over the peninsula. First he sent two cardinal legates to Markwuld to demand the restoration of the Romagna and the March of Ancona to the Church. Upon his evasive answer he was excommunicated by the legates and driven away by the papal troops. In like manner the Duchy of Spoleto and the Districts of Assisi and Sora were wrested from the German knight, Conrad von Uerslingen. The league which had been formed among the cities of Tuscany was ratified by the pope after it acknowledged him as suzerain.

Constance, Queen of Sicily

The death of the Emperor Henry VI left his four-year old child, Frederick II, King of Sicily. The emperor’s widow Constance, who ruled over Sicily for her little son, was unable to cope singly against the Norman barons of the Sicilian Kingdom, who resented the German rule and refused to acknowledge the child-king. She appealed to Innocent III to save the Sicilian throne for her child. The pope made use of this opportunity to reassert papal suzerainty over Sicily, and acknowledged Frederick II as king only after Constance had surrendered certain privileges contained in the so-called Four Chapters, which William I had previously extorted from Adrian IV. The pope then solemnly invested Frederick II as King of Sicily in a Bull issued about the middle of November, 1198. Before the Bull reached Sicily Constance had died, but before her death she had appointed Innocent as guardian of the orphan-king. With the greatest fidelity the pope watched over the welfare of his ward during the nine years of his minority. Even the enemies of the papacy admit that Innocent was an unselfish guardian of the young king and that no one else could have ruled for him more ably and conscientiously. To protect the inexperienced king against his enemies, he induced him in 1209 to marry Constance, the widow of King Emeric of Hungary. Conditions in Germany were extremely favourable for the application of Innocent’s idea concerning the relation between the papacy and the empire. After the death of Henry VI a double election had ensued. The Ghibellines had elected Philip of Swabia on 6 March, 1198, while the Guelfs had elected Otto IV, son of Henry the Lion and nephew of King Richard of England, in April of the same year. The former was crowned at Mainz on 8 September, 1198, the latter at Aachen on 12 July, 1198. Immediately upon his accession to the papal throne Innocent had sent the Bishop of Sutri and the Abbot of Sant’ Anastasio as legates to Germany, with instructions to free Philip of Swabia from the ban which he had incurred under Celestine III, on condition that he would bring about the liberation of the imprisoned Queen Sibyl of Sicily and restore the territory which he had taken from the Church when he was Duke of Tuscany. When the legates arrived in Germany, Philip had already been elected king. Yielding to the wishes of Philip, the Bishop of Sutri secretly freed him from the ban upon his mere promise to fulfil the proposed conditions.

Frederick II

After the coronation Philip sent the legates back to Rome with letters requesting the pope’s ratification of his election; but Innocent was dissatisfied with the action of the Bishop of Sutri and refused to ratify the election. Otto IV also sent legates to the pope after his coronation at Aachen, but before the pope took any action, the two claimants of the German throne began to assert their claims by force of arms. Though the pope did not openly side with either of them, it was apparent that his sympathy was with Otto IV. Offended at what they considered an unjust interference on the part of the pope, the adherents of Philip sent a letter to him in which they protested against his interference in the imperial affairs of Germany. In his answer Innocent stated that he had no intention of encroaching upon the rights of the princes, but insisted upon the rights of the Church in this matter. He emphasized especially that the conferring of the imperial crown belonged to the pope alone. In 1201 the pope openly espoused the side of Otto IV. On 3 July, 1201, the papal legate, Cardinal-Bishop Guido of Palestrina, announced to the people, in the cathedral of Cologne, that Otto IV had been approved by the pope as Roman king and threatened with excommunication all those who refused to acknowledge him. Innocent III made clear to the German princes by the Decree “Venerabilem” which he addressed to the Duke of Zähringen in May, 1202, in what relation he considered the empire to stand to the papacy. This decretal, which has become famous, was afterwards embodied in the “Corpus Juris Canonici”. It is found in Baluze, “Registrum Innocentii III super negotio Romani Imperii”, no. lxii, and is reprinted in P. L., CCXVI, 1065-7. The following are the chief points of the decretal:

  • The German princes have the right to elect the king, who is afterwards to become emperor.
  • This right was given them by the Apostolic See when it transferred the imperial dignity from the Greeks to the Germans in the person of Charlemagne.
  • The right to investigate and decide whether a king thus elected is worthy of the imperial dignity belongs to the pope, whose office it is to anoint, consecrate, and crown him; otherwise it might happen that the pope would be obliged to anoint, consecrate, and Crown a king who was excommunicated, a heretic, or a pagan.
  • If the pope finds that the king who has been elected by the princes is unworthy of the imperial dignity, the princes must elect a new king or, if they refuse, the pope will confer the imperial dignity upon another king; for the Church stands in need of a patron and defender.
  • In case of a double election the pope must exhort the princes to come to an agreement. If after a due interval they have not reached an agreement they must ask the pope to arbitrate, failing which, he must of his own accord and by virtue of his office decide in favour of one of the claimants. The pope’s decision need not be based on the greater or less legality of either election, but on the qualifications of the claimants.

Innocent’s exposition of his theory concerning the relation between the papacy and the empire was accepted by many princes, as is apparent from the sudden increase of Otto’s adherents subsequent to the issue of the decretal. If after 1203 the majority of the princes began again to side with Philip, it was the fault of Otto himself, who was very irritable and often offended his best friends. Innocent, reversing his decision, declared in favour of Philip in 1207, and sent the Cardinals Ugolino of Ostia and Leo of Santa Croce to Germany with instructions to endeavour to induce Otto to renounce his claims to the throne and with powers to free Philip from the ban. The murder of King Philip by Otto of Wittelsbach, 21 June, 1208, entirely changed conditions in Germany. At the Diet of Frankfort, 11 November, 1208, Otto was acknowledged as king by all the princes, and the pope invited him to Rome to receive the imperial crown. He was crowned emperor in the Basilica of St. Peter at Rome, 4 October, 1209.

Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Before his coronation he had solemnly promised to leave the Church in the peaceful possession of Spoleto, Ancona, and the gift of Countess Matilda; to assist the pope in the exercise of his suzerainty over Sicily; to grant freedom of ecclesiastical elections; unlimited right of appeal to the pope and the exclusive competency of the hierarchy in spiritual matters; he had, moreover renounced the “regalia” and the jus spolii, i. e., the right to the revenues of vacant sees and the seizure of the estates of intestate ecclesiastics. He also promised to assist the hierarchy in the extirpation of heresy. But scarcely had he been crowned emperor when he seized Ancons, Spoleto, the bequest of Matilda, and other property of the Church, giving it in vassalage to some of his friends. He also united with the enemies of Frederick II and invaded the Kingdom of Sicily with the purpose of wresting it from the youthful king and from the suzerainty of the pope. When Otto did not listen to the remonstrances of Innocent, the latter excommunicated him, 18 November, 1210, and solemnly proclaimed his excommunication at a Roman synod held on 31 March, 1211. The pope now began to treat with King Philip Augustus of France and with the German princes, with the result that most princes renounced the excommunicated emperor and elected in his place the youthful Frederick II of Sicily, at the Diet of Nuremberg in September, 1211. The election was repeated in presence of a representative of the pope and of Philip Augustus of France at the Diet of Frankfort, 2 December, 1212. After making practically the same promises to the pope which Otto IV had made previously, and, in addition, taking the solemn oath never to unite Sicily with the empire, his election was ratified by Innocent and he was crowned at Aachen on 12 July, 1215. The deposed emperor Otto IV hastened to Germany immediately upon the election of Frederick II, but received little support from the princes. In alliance with John of England he made war upon Philip of France, but was defeated in the battle of Bouvines, 27 July, 1214. Then he lost all influence in Germany and died on 19 May, 1218, leaving the pope’s creature, Frederick II, the undisputed emperor. When Innocent ascended the papal throne a cruel war was being waged between Philip Augustus of France and Richard of England. The pope considered it his duty, as the supreme ruler of the Christian world, to put an end to all hostilities among Christian princes. Shortly after his accession he sent Cardinal Peter of Capua to France with instructions to threaten both kings with interdict if they would not within two months conclude peace or at least agree upon a truce of five years. In January, 1198, the two kings met between Vernon and Andely and a truce of five years was agreed upon. The same legate was instructed by the pope to threaten Philip Augustus with interdict over the whole of France if within a month he would not be reconciled with his lawful wife, Ingeburga of Denmark, whom he had rejected and in whose stead he had taken Agnes, daughter of the Duke of Meran. When Philip took no heed of the pope’s warning Innocent carried out his threat and on 12 December, 1199, laid the whole of France under interdict. For nine months the king remained stubborn, but when the barons and the people began to rise in rebellion against him he finally discarded his concubine and the interdict was lifted on 7 September, 1200. It was not, however, until 1213 that the pope succeeded in bringing about a final reconciliation between the king and his lawful wife Ingeburga.

Ingeburga of Denmark

Innocent also had an opportunity to assert the papal rights in England. After the death of Archbishop Hubert of Canterbury, in 1205, a number of the younger monks of Christ Church assembled secretly at night and elected their sub-prior, Reginald, as archbishop. This election was made without the concurrence of the bishop and without the authority of the king. Reginald was asked not to divulge his election until he had received the papal approbation. But on his way to Rome the vain monk assumed the title of archbishop-elect, and thus the episcopal body of the province of Canterbury was apprised of the secret election. The bishops at once sent Peter of Anglesham as their representative to Pope Innocent to protest against the uncanonical proceedings of the monks of Christ Church. The monks also were highly incensed at Reginald because, contrary to his promise, he had divulged his election. They proceeded to a second election, and on 11 December, 1205, cast their votes for the royal favourite, John de Grey, whom the king had recommended to their suffrages. The controversy between the monks of Christ Church and the bishops concerning the right of electing the Archbishop of Canterbury, Innocent decided in favour of the monks, but in the present case he pronounced both elections invalid; that of Reginald because it had been made uncanonically and clandestinely, that of John de Grey because it had occurred before the invalidity of the former was proclaimed by the pope. Not even King John, who offered Innocent 3000 marks if he would decide in favour of de Grey, could alter the pope’s decision. Innocent summoned those monks of Canterbury who were in Rome to proceed to a new election and recommended to their choice Stephen Langton, an Englishman, whom the pope had called to Rome from the rectorship of the University of Paris, in order to create him cardinal. He was duly elected by the monks and the pope himself consecrated him archbishop at Viterbo on 17 June, 1207. Innocent informed King John of the election of Langton and asked him to accept the new archbishop. The king, however, had set his mind on his favourite, John de Grey, and flatly refused to allow Langton to come to England in the capacity of Archbishop of Canterbury. He, moreover, wreaked his vengeance on the monks of Christ Church by driving them from their monastery and taking possession of their property.

Pope Innocent III, middle, by Raphael.

Innocent now placed the entire kingdom under interdict which was proclaimed on 24 March, 1208. When this proved of no avail and the king committed acts of cruelty against the clergy, the pope declared him excommunicated in 1209, and formally deposed him in 1212. He entrusted King Philip of France with the execution of the sentence. When Philip threatened to invade England and the feudal lords and the clergy began to forsake King John, the latter made his submission to Pandulph, whom Innocent had sent as legate to England. He promised to acknowledge Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury, to allow the exiled bishops and priests to return to England and to make compensation for the losses which the clergy had sustained. He went still further, and on 13 May, 1213, probably of his own initiative, surrendered the English kingdom through Pandulph into the hands of the pope to be returned to him as a fief. The document of the surrender states that henceforth the kings of England were to rule as vassals of the pope and to pay an annual tribute of 1000 marks to the See of Rome. On 20 July, 1213, the king was solemnly freed from the ban at Winchester and after the clergy had been reimbursed for its losses the interdict was lifted from England on 29 June, 1214. It appears that many of the barons were not pleased with the surrender of England into the hands of the pope. They also resented the king’s continuous trespasses upon their liberties and his many acts of injustice in the government of the people. They finally had recourse to violence and forced him to yield to their demands by affixing his seal to the Magna Charta. Innocent could not as suzerain of England allow a contract which imposed such serious obligations upon his vassal to be made without his consent. His legate Pandulph had repeatedly praised King John to the pope as a wise ruler and loyal vassal of the Holy See. The pope, therefore, declared the Great Charter null and void, not because it gave too many liberties to the barons and the people, but because it had been obtained by violence.

There was scarcely a country in Europe over which Innocent III did not in some way or other assert the supremacy which he claimed for the papacy. He excommunicated Alfonso IX of Leon, for marrying a near relative, Berengaria, a daughter of Alfonso VIII, contrary to the laws of the Church, and effected their separation in 1204. For similar reasons he annulled, in 1208, the marriage of the crown-prince, Alfonso of Portugal, with Urraca, daughter of Alfonso of Castile. From Pedro II of Aragon he received that kingdom in vassalage and crowned him king at Rome in 1204. He prepared a crusade against the Moors and lived to see their power broken in Spain at the battle of Navas de Tolosa, in 1212. He protected the people of Norway against their tyrannical king, Sverri, and after the king’s death arbitrated between the two claimants to the Norwegian throne. He mediated between King Emeric of Hungary and his rebellious brother Andrew, sent royal crown and sceptre to King Johannitius of Bulgaria and had his legate crown him king at Tirnovo, in 1204; he restored ecclesiastical discipline in Poland; arbitrated between the two claimants to the royal crown of Sweden; made partly successful attempts to reunite the Greek with the Latin Church and extended his beneficent influence practically over the whole Christian world. Like many preceding popes, Innocent had at heart the recovery of the Holy Land, and for this end undertook the Fourth Crusade. The Venetians had pledged themselves to transport the entire Christian army and to furnish the fleet with provisions for nine months, for 85,000 marks. When the crusaders were unable to pay the sum, the Venetians proposed to bear the financial expenses themselves on condition that the crusaders would first assist them in the conquest of the city of Zara. The crusaders yielded to their demands and the fleet started down the Adriatic on 8 October, 1202. Zara had scarcely been reduced when Alexius Comnenus arrived at the camp of the crusaders and pleaded for their help to replace his father, Isaac Angelus, on the throne of Constantinople from which he had been deposed by his cruel brother Alexius. In return he promised to reunite the Greek with the Latin Church, to add 10,000 soldiers to the ranks of the crusaders, and to contribute money and provisions to the crusade. The Venetians, who saw their own commercial advantage in the taking of Constantinople, induced the crusaders to yield to the prayers of Alexius, and Constantinople was taken by them in 1204. Isaac Angelus was restored to his throne but soon replaced by a usurper. The crusaders took Constantinople a second time on 12 April, 1204, and after a horrible pillage, Baldwin, Count of Flanders, was proclaimed emperor and the Greek Church was united with the Latin. The reunion, as well as the Latin empire in the East, did not last longer than two generations. When Pope Innocent learned that the Venetians had diverted the crusaders from their purpose of conquering the Holy Land he expressed his great dissatisfaction first at their conquest of Zara, and when they proceeded towards Constantinople he solemnly protested and finally excommunicated the Venetians who had caused the digression of the crusaders from their original purpose. Since, however, he could not undo what had been accomplished he did his utmost to destroy the Greek schism and latinize the Eastern Empire.

St. John of Matha receiving the approved Order from Pope Innocent III

Innocent was also a zealous protector of the true Faith and a strenuous opponent of heresy. His chief activity was turned against the Albigenses who had become so numerous and aggressive that they were no longer satisfied with being adherents of heretical doctrines but even endeavoured to spread their heresy by force. They were especially numerous in a few cities of Northern an in Southern France. During the first year of his pontificate Innocent sent the two Cistercian monks Rainer and Guido to the Albigenses in France to preach to them the true Faith and dispute with them on controverted topics of religion. The two Cistercian missionaries were soon followed by Diego, Bishop of Osma, then by St. Dominic and the two papal legates. Peter of Castelnau and Raoul. When, however, these peaceful missionaries were ridiculed and despised by the Albigenses, and the papal legate Castelnau was assassinated in 1208, Innocent resorted to force. He ordered the bishops of Southern France to put under interdict the participants in the murder and all the towns that gave shelter to them. He was especially incensed against Count Raymond of Toulouse who had previously been excommunicated by the murdered legate and whom, for good reasons, the pope suspected as the instigator of the murder. The count protested his innocence and submitted to the pope, probably out of cowardice, but the pope placed no further trust in him. He called upon France to raise an army for the suppression of the Albigenses. Under the leadership of Simon of Montfort a cruel campaign ensued against the Albigenses which, despite the protest of Innocent, soon turned into a war of conquest (see ALBIGENSES). The culminating point in the glorious reign of Innocent was his convocation of the Fourth Lateran Council, which he solemnly opened on 15 November, 1215. It was by far the most important council of the Middle Ages. Besides deciding on a general crusade to the Holy Land, it issued seventy reformatory decrees, the first of which was a creed (Firmiter credimus), against the Albigenses and Waldenses, in which the term “transubstantiation” received its first ecclesiastical sanction.

The Ospedale di Santo Spirito (Italian for Hospital of the Holy Spirit), built by Pope Innocent III.

The labours of Innocent in the inner government of the Church appear to be of a very subordinate character when they are put beside his great politico-ecclesiastical achievements which brought the papacy to the zenith of its power. Still they are worthy of memory and have contributed their share to the glory of his pontificate. During his reign the two great founders of the mendicant orders, St. Dominic and St. Francis, laid before him their scheme of reforming the world. Innocent was not blind to the vices of luxury and indolence which had infected many of the clergy and part of the laity. In Dominic and Francis he recognized two mighty adversaries of these vices and he sanctioned their projects with words of encouragement. The lesser religious orders which he approved are the Hospitallers of the Holy Ghost on 23 April, 1198, the Trinitarians on 17 December, 1198, and the Humiliati, in June, 1201. In 1209 he commissioned the Cistercian monk, Christian, afterwards bishop, with the conversion of the heathen Prussians. At Rome he built the famous hospital Santo Spirito in Sassia, which became the model of all future city hospitals and exists to the present time (see Walsh, “The Popes and Science”, New York, 1908, p. 249-258; and the article HOSPITALS). The following saints were canonized by Innocent: Homobonus, a merchant of Cremona, on 12 January, 1199; the Empress Cunegond, on 3 March, 1200; William, Duke of Aquitaine in 1202; Wulstan, Bishop of York, on 14 May, 1203; Procopius, abbot at Prague, on 2 June, 1204; and Guibert ,the founder of the monastery at Gembloux, in 1211. Innocent died at Perugia, while travelling through Italy in the interests of the crusade which had been decided upon at the Lateran Council. He was buried in the cathedral of Perugia where his body remained until Leo XIII, a great admirer of Innocent, had it transferred to the Lateran in December, 1891. Innocent is also the author of various literary works reprinted in P. L., CCXIV-CCXVIII, where may also be found his numerous extant epistles and decretals, and the historically important “Registrum Innocentii III super negotio imperii”. His first work, “De contemptu mundi, sive de miseria conditionis humanæ libri III” (P. L., CCXVII, 701-746) was written while he lived in retirement during the pontificate of Celestine III. It is an ascetical treatise and gives evidence of Innocent’s deep piety and knowledge of men. Concerning it see Reinlein “Papst Innocenz der dritte und seine Schrift ‘De contemptu mundi” (Erlangen, 1871). His treatise “De sacro altaris mysterio libri VI” (P. L., CCXVII, 773-916) is of great liturgical value, because it represents the Roman Mass as it was at the time of Innocent. See Franz, “Die Messe im deutschen Mittelalter” (Freiburg, 1902), 453-457. It was printed repeatedly, and translated into German by Hurter (Schaffhausen, 1845). He also wrote “De quadripartita specie nuptiarum” (P. L., CCXVII, 923-968), an exposition of the fourfold marriage bond, namely,

  • between man and wife,
  • between Christ and the Church,
  • between God and the just soul,
  • between the Word and human nature

and is entirely based on passages from Holy Scripture. “Commentarius in septem psalmos pœnitentiales” (P. L., CCXVII, 967-1130) is of doubtful authorship. Among his seventy-nine sermons (ibidem, 314-691) is the famous one on the text “Desiderio desideravi” (Luke, xxii, 15), which he delivered at the Fourth Lateran Council.

Gesta Innocentii, written by an unknown contemporary, edited with valuable critical notes by BALUZE (Paris, 1686). The Gesta were also edited by MURATORI in Rerum ltalicarum Scriptores ab anna 500 ad 1500, III (Milan, 1723-51), i, 480 sq., and reprinted in P. L., CCXIV, cviii-ccxxxviii. Concerning their historical value see ELKAN, Die “Gesta Innocentii III.” im Verhältniss zu den Regesten desselben Papstes (Heidelberg, 1876). The principal modern sources are: HURTER, Geschichte des Papstes Innocenz III. und seiner Zeitgenossen (4 vols., Hainburg, 1841-4); the following six studies by LUCHAIRE, all published at Paris: Innocent III, Rome et l’Italie (1904); Innocent III, la croisade des Albigeois (1905); Innocent III, to papauté et l’empire (1906); Innocent III, la question d’Orient (1907): Innocent III, les royautés vassales du Saint-Siège (1908); Innocent III, le concile de Latran et la réforme de l’église (1908); BARRY, The Papal Monarchy (New York, 1903), 282-332; JORRY, Histoire du Pape Innocent III (Paris, 1853); DELISLE, Mémoire sur les actes d’Innocent III, suivi de l’itinéraire de ce pontife (Paris, 1857); DEUTSCH, Papst Innocenz III. und sein Einfluss auf die Kirche (Breslau, 1876); GASPARLIN, Innocent III, le siège apostolique, Constantin (Paris, 1875); SCHWEMER, Innocenz III. und die deutsche Kirche während des Thronstreites von 1198-1208 (Strasburg, 1882); LINDEMANN, Kritische Darstellung der Verhandlungen Innocenz III. mit den deutschen Gegenkönigen (Magdeburg, 1885); ENGELMANN, Philipp von Schwaben und Innocenz III. während des deutschen Thronstreites (Berlin, 1896); WINKELMANN, Philipp von Schwaben und Otto IV. (2 vols., Leipzig, 1873-8); MOLITOR, Die Decretale “Per venerabilem” von Innocenz III. und ihre Stellung im öffentlichen Rechte der Kirche (Münster, 1876) ; GÜTSCHOW, Innocenz III. und England (Munich, 1904); NORGATE, John Lackland (New York, 1902); GASQUET, Henry the Third and the Church (London, 1905), 1-26; LINGARD, History of England, II (Edinburgh, 1902), 312-376; PIRIE-GORDON, Innocent the Great (London, 1907), somewhat fantastic; NORDEN, Papsttum und Byzanz (Berlin, 1903), 133-238; HILL, A History of European Diplomacy, I (New York, 1905), 313-331; MULLANY, Innocent III in American Catholic Quarterly Review, XXXII (Philadelphia, 1907), 25-48; FEIERFEIL, Innocenz III. und seine Beziehungen zu Böhmen (Teplitz, 1905) ; BÖHMER, Regesta imperii, V.; Die Regesten des Kaiserreiches unter Philipp, Otto IV., Friedrich II., Heinrich (VII.), Konrad IV., Heinrich Raspe, Wilhelm und Richard, 1198-1272, newly edited by FICKER and WINKELMANN (Innsbruck, 1881-1901).

MICHAEL OTT (Catholic Encyclopedia)

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Saint John Francis Regis

St. John Francis RegisBorn 31 January, 1597, in the village of Fontcouverte (department of Aude); died at la Louvesc, 30 Dec., 1640.

His father Jean, a rich merchant, had been recently ennobled in recognition of the prominent part he had taken in the Wars of the League; his mother, Marguerite de Cugunhan, belonged by birth to the landed nobility of that part of Languedoc. They watched with Christian solicitude over the early education of their son, whose sole fear was lest he should…

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June 17 – Sobieski

June 15, 2017

John III Sobieski (Polish: Jan III Sobieski, Lithuanian: Jonas Sobieskis; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696) Born at Olesko in 1629; died at Wilanow, 1696; son of James, Castellan of Cracow and descended by his mother from the heroic Zolkiewski, who died in battle at Cecora. His elder brother Mark was his companion in […]

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June 17 – Founder of the Albertines

June 15, 2017

Saint Brother Albert Chmielowski In Igołomia, on the outskirts of Cracow (Poland), the noble family of Adalbert Chmielowski and Josephine Borzysławska announced on August 20, 1845, the birth of their son Adam (Brother Albert). Mr Chmielowski together with his wife, raised their children in an atmosphere of patriotic ideals, strong faith in God and a […]

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June 17, 1793: Pius VI condemns the revolutionary concepts of liberty and equality

June 15, 2017

Pius VI repeatedly condemned the false concept of liberty and equality. In the Secret Consistory of June 17, 1793, quoting the words of the encyclical Inscrutabilie Divinae Sapientiae of December 25, 1775, he declared: “‘The most perfidious philosophers go farther. They dissolve all those bonds by which human beings are joined to one another and to […]

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June 18 – To make peace, she surrendered her son’s rights to the throne

June 15, 2017

Blessed Theresa of Portugal (born at Coimbra, October 4, 1178 – died at Lorvão, June 18, 1250) Queen of Léon as the first wife of King Alfonso IX of León. She was the oldest daughter of Sancho I of Portugal and Dulce of Aragon. Theresa was the mother to three of Alfonso’s children—two daughters and […]

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June 19 – Herbert Vaughan

June 15, 2017

Herbert Vaughan Cardinal, and third Archbishop of Westminster; b. at Gloucester, 15 April, 1832; d. at St. Joseph’s College, Mill Hill, Middlesex, 19 June, 1903; he came of a family which had been true to the Catholic Faith all through the ages of the persecution. Its members had suffered for their faith in fines and […]

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June 19 – St. Jean-Louis Bonnard

June 15, 2017

Saint Jean-Louis Bonnard A French missionary and martyr, born 1 March, 1824 at Saint-Christôt-en-Jarret (Diocese of Lyons); beheaded 30 April, 1852. After a collegiate course at Saint Jodard, he entered the seminary of Lyons, which he left at the age of twenty two, to complete his theological studies at the Seminary of the Foreign Missions […]

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June 19 – Bl. Odo of Cambrai

June 15, 2017

Bl. Odo of Cambrai Bishop and confessor, also called ODOARDUS; born at Orleans, 1050; died at Anchin, 19 June, 1113. In 1087 he was invited by the canons of Tournai to teach in that city, and there soon won a great reputation. He became a Benedictine monk (1095) in St. Martin’s, Tournai, of which be […]

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June 19 – St. François-Isidore Gagelin

June 15, 2017

Saint François-Isidore Gagelin (10 May 1799 – 17 October 1833) was a French missionary of the Paris Foreign Missions Society in Vietnam. He became the first French martyr of the 19th century in Vietnam. He was born in Montperreux, Doubs. He left for Vietnam in 1821. In 1826, when Emperor Minh Mạng ordered all missionaries […]

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June 19 – Love Accepts No Limitations

June 15, 2017

St. Juliana Falconieri Born in 1270; died 12 June, 1341. Juliana belonged to the noble Florentine family of Falconieri. Her uncle, St. Alexis Falconieri, was one of the seven founders of the Servite Order. Through his influence she also consecrated herself from her earliest youth to the religious life and the practices of Christian perfection. […]

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June 19 – Execution of second group of those who believed in the religious exemption, but only at first

June 15, 2017

Carthusian Martyrs – the Second Group After little more than a month after the first group, it was the turn of three leading monks of the London house: Doms Humphrey Middlemore, William Exmew and Sebastian Newdigate, who were to die at Tyburn, London on the 19 June. Newdigate was a personal friend of Henry VIII, […]

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June 13 – He Lived Only 36 Years, But the Whole World Knows Him

June 12, 2017

St. Anthony of Padua Franciscan Thaumaturgist, born at Lisbon, 1195; died at Vercelli, 13 June, 1231. He received in baptism the name of Ferdinand. Later writers of the fifteenth century asserted that his father was Martin Bouillon, descendant of the renowned Godfrey de Bouillon, commander of the First Crusade, and his mother, Theresa Taveira, descendant […]

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June 14 – The entire population was slaughtered, except those who embraced Islam

June 12, 2017

Croia A titular see of Albania. Croia (pronounced Kruya, Albanian, “Spring”) stands on the site of Eriboea, a town mentioned by Ptolemy (III, xiii, 13, 41). Georgius Acropolites (lxix) mentions it as a fortress in 1251. A decree of the Venetian senate gave it in 1343 to Marco Barbarigo and his wife. In 1395 it […]

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June 15 – Magna Carta

June 12, 2017

Magna Carta The charter of liberties granted by King John of England in 1215 and confirmed with modifications by Henry III in 1216, 1217, and 1225. The Magna Carta has long been considered by the English-speaking peoples as the earliest of the great constitutional documents which give the history of England so unique a character; […]

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June 15 – The Northern Crusades

June 12, 2017

The Battle of Lyndanisse was a battle which helped King Valdemar II of Denmark establish the territory of Danish Estonia during the Northern Crusades. Valdemar II defeated the Estonians at Lyndanisse (Estonian: Lindanise), during the Northern Crusades, by orders from the Pope… Read more here.

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June 15 – St. Bernard dogs carry his name

June 12, 2017

St. Bernard of Menthon Born in 923, probably in the castle Menthon near Annecy, in Savoy; died at Novara, 1008. He was descended from a rich, noble family and received a thorough education. He refused to enter an honorable marriage proposed by his father and decided to devote himself to the service of the Church. […]

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Remember what Queen Elizabeth said at her Coronation 64 Years Ago

June 8, 2017

According to People: Prince Charles…was thus allowed to attend the festivities, making him the first heir apparent of a Queen to attend a coronation. …the Queen said… “The ceremonies you have seen today are ancient, and some of their origins are veiled in the mists of the past… But their spirit and their meaning shine […]

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Grandson shows Churchill’s house to Prince of Wales

June 8, 2017

According to The Telegraph: The Prince was shown around Chartwell by Sir Nicholas Soames, the grandson of Sir Winston who grew up there and has fond memories of his family in situ. Later this year, Sir Winston’s bedroom will be part of the tour for the first time… Although the house has been open to […]

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Following The Stars To Santiago

June 8, 2017

By Julian Martins In the eleventh century, a poor, tired, and thirsty pilgrim crossed one of the most difficult mountain passes in Navarre, Spain. He was headed for the faraway lands of Galicia, to the shrine of Saint James the Greater, where the remains of this great saint had been miraculously discovered two centuries earlier. […]

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We need a chivalry of the spirit to combat the Revolution in the Reign of Mary

June 8, 2017

By Plinio Corrêa de Oliveira This would be the chivalry of that time: a chivalry that would be much more one of the spirit than one of brute force. It would be a chivalry of a spiritual nature which, if it remained faithful, would make it impossible to happen to it what happened to the […]

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June 9 – St. Columba

June 8, 2017

St. Columba Abbot of Iona, born at Garten, County Donegal, Ireland, 7 December, 521; died 9 June, 597. He belonged to the Clan O’Donnell, and was of royal descent. His father’s name was Fedhlimdh and that of his mother Eithne. On his father’s side he was great-great-grandson of Niall of the Nine Hostages, an Irish […]

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June 9 – A simple palace servant, God confided to her the destiny of nations

June 8, 2017

Blessed Anna Maria Gesualda Antonia Taigi (Maiden name Giannetti.) Venerable Servant of God, born at Siena, Italy, 29 May, 1769; died at Rome, 9 June, 1837. Her parents, Luigi Giannetti and Maria Masi, kept an apothecary shop at Siena, but lost all their fortune and were obliged to go to Rome in search of a […]

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June 9 – Apostle of Brazil

June 8, 2017

St. Joseph Anchieta A famous Jesuit missionary, commonly known as the Apostle of Brazil, born on the Island of Tenerife, in 1553, of noble family; died in Brazil, 1596. After studying in Coimbra, he entered the Society of Jesus, at the age of seventeen, and when a novice nearly ruined his health by his excessive […]

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June 10 – Anti-pagan Renaissance Saint

June 8, 2017

Bl. Giovanni Dominici (BANCHINI or BACCHINI was his family name). Cardinal, statesman and writer, born at Florence, 1356; died at Buda, 10 July, 1420. He entered the Dominican Order at Santa Maria Novella in 1372 after having been cured, through the intercession of St. Catherine of Siena, of an impediment of speech for which he […]

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June 10 – Most Sublime Figure of Portuguese Literature

June 8, 2017

Luis Vaz de Camões (OR CAMOENS) Born in 1524 or 1525; died 10 June, 1580. The most sublime figure in the history of Portuguese literature, Camões owes his lasting fame to his epic poem “Os Lusiadas,” (The Lusiads); he is remarkable also for the degree of art attained in his lyrics, less noteworthy for his […]

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June 11 – Blessed Ignatius Maloyan

June 8, 2017

Ignatius Maloyan (Shoukrallah), son of Melkon and Faridé, was born in 1869, in Mardin, Turkey. His parish priest, noticed in him signs of a priestly vocation, so he sent him to the convent of Bzommar-Lebanon; he was fourteen years old. After finishing his superior studies in 1896, the day dedicated to the Sacred Heart of […]

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June 11 – St. Godeberta

June 8, 2017

St. Godeberta Born about the year 640, at Boves, a few leagues from Amiens, in France; died about the beginning of the eighth century, at Noyon (Oise), the ancient Noviomagus. She was very carefully educated, her parents being of noble rank and attached to the court of King Clovis II. When the question of her […]

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June 12 – Saint Guido of Acqui

June 8, 2017

Saint Guido of Acqui (also Wido) (c. 1004 – 12 June 1070) was Bishop of Acqui (now Acqui Terme) in north-west Italy from 1034 until his death. He was born around 1004 to a noble family of the area of Acqui, the Counts of Acquesana, in Melazzo where the family’s wealth was concentrated. He completed […]

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June 12 – A certain nobleman had a concubine

June 8, 2017

St. John of Sahagun Hermit, born 1419, at Sahagun (or San Fagondez) in the Kingdom of Leon, in Spain; died 11 June, 1479, at Salamanca; feast 12 June. In art he is represented holding a chalice and host surrounded by rays of light. John, the oldest of seven children, was born of pious and respected […]

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June 12 – He Crowned Charlemagne

June 8, 2017

Pope St. Leo III Date of birth unknown; died 816. He was elected on the very day his predecessor was buried (26 Dec., 795), and consecrated on the following day. It is quite possible that this haste may have been due to a desire on the part of the Romans to anticipate any interference of […]

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June 6 – St. Claudius

June 5, 2017

The Life of St. Claudius, Abbot of Condat, has been the subject of much controversy. Dom Benott says that he lived in the seventh century; that he had been Bishop of Besançon before being abbot, that he was fifty-five years an abbot, and died in 694. He left Condat in a very flourishing state to […]

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June 6 – Patron and Protector of Bohemia

June 5, 2017

St. Norbert Born at Xanten on the left bank of the Rhine, near Wesel, c. 1080; died at Magdeburg, 6 June, 1134. His father, Heribert, Count of Gennep, was related to the imperial house of Germany, and his house of Lorraine. A stately bearing, a penetrating intellect, a tender, earnest heart, marked the future apostle. […]

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June 7 – Martyr Prince of the Wends

June 5, 2017

St. Gottschalk (GODESCALCUS). Martyr, Prince of the Wends; died at Lenzen on the Elbe, 7 June 1066. His feast is noted for 7 June in the additions of the Carthusians at Brussels to the martyrology of Usuardus. He was the son of Udo, Prince of the Abrodites who remained a Christian, though a poor one […]

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June 7 – The Crusaders reach the walls of Jerusalem

June 5, 2017

In June of 1099 [the First Crusade] arrived before the walls of Jerusalem, which was then held by the Fatimid Arabs of Egypt. With their usual religious zeal and grim determination, the Christians prepared to attack the walls. Their fighting force had been reduced to 1,200 knights and 10,000 foot soldiers, with a similar number […]

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June 8 – She did what St. Ignatius could not

June 5, 2017

Ven. Anne de Xainctonge Foundress of the Society of the Sisters of St. Ursula of the Blessed Virgin, born at Dijon, 21 November, 1567; died at Dôle, 8 June, 1621. She was the daughter of Jean de Xainctonge, councillor in the Dijon Parliament, and of Lady Marguerite Collard, both of noble birth and virtuous life. […]

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June 8 – Accused of theft and other misconduct

June 5, 2017

St. William of York (WILLIAM FITZHERBERT, also called WILLIAM OF THWAYT). Archbishop of York. Tradition represents him as nephew of King Stephen, whose sister Emma was believed to have married Herbert of Winchester, treasurer to Henry I. William became a priest, and about 1130 he was canon and treasurer of York. In 1142 he was […]

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June 8 – The Noble Countess Who Dedicated Her Life to Bringing Dissolute Women to Repentance

June 5, 2017

Blessed Mary of the Divine Heart (died in Porto, Portugal, June 8, 1899), born Maria Droste zu Vischering, was a noble of Germany and Roman Catholic nun best known for influencing Pope Leo XIII’s consecration of the world to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Pope Leo XIII called this consecration “the greatest act of my […]

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Grand Duke and Grand Duchess Join Pilgrimage to Fatima shrine

June 1, 2017

According to Luxarazzi: The Grand Duchess offered the flowers she received upon her arrival as a gift to the statue of Our Lady of Fátima. The shrine of Our Lady of Fátima above Wiltz was set up…by a group of local parishioners, who, having taken refuge in a cave during the Battle of the Ardennes […]

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Burger King ad angers real-life Belgian royal family

June 1, 2017

According to BBC News: Belgium’s royal family says it has contacted the fast food chain Burger King over an ad that invites people to choose between the country’s King Philippe and the company’s mascot. The ad…asks those who choose Philippe: “Are you sure? He won’t be the one to cook your fries.” On the ad […]

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Hope of a Hopeless World

June 1, 2017

By Plinio Corrêa de Oliveira                                       Legionário, N.º 410, 21 de julho de 1940 (*)   If there is an age whose sole hope lies in the Sacred Heart of Jesus, it is our own. The evils committed by mankind today can scarcely be exaggerated. To mention just a few, these include blasphemy, the destruction of […]

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19th C. Washington Societal Etiquette

June 1, 2017

Washingtonian Social Etiquette The wife of the chief-justice, and not the wife of the President, is the first lady in the land, and takes precedence of all others. She holds receptions and receives calls, but she alone is excluded from all duty of returning calls. The life of a lady in society at Washington is […]

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